Mike Scott, minister (http://www.scripturessay.com) states:

'''[Mt 26:34]:

"Jesus said to him, "Truly I say to you that this very night, before a rooster crows, you will deny Me three times."

[Lk 22:34]:

"And He said, "I say to you, Peter, the rooster will not crow today until you have denied three times that you know Me."

[John 13:38]:

"Jesus answered, 'Will you lay down your life for Me? Truly, truly, I say to you, a rooster will not crow until you deny Me three times.' "

[Mark 14:30]:

"And Jesus said to him, 'Truly I say to you, that this very night, before a rooster crows twice, you yourself will deny Me three times.' "

All the gospel writers mention that the rooster will crow before Peter denies Christ. They all mention the number of denials (the most significant numerical detail here) as being three. Mark mentions that the rooster will crow twice after the denials. Is this a discrepancy?...[Not if you go by normative rules of language] ....I don't believe so.

[Essentially Christ's words could be paraphrased as follows]:

'Peter, in the next few hours you will deny me three times, in fact, before the rooster crows!' It seems, since there is no real contradiction here, that Mark simply gives us greater details about the circumstances in this incident. Often this is the case in the gospels. One writer giving an additional detail or two to the story. Nothing contradictory, simply illuminating. One commentator has observed (Alford) that roosters are accustomed to crow twice,--at or near midnight, and not far from day-break. Since very few people hear the first crowing, the term generally denotes the second. Therefore all the gospel writers are referring to this "second" crowing.'''


[Objectors Viewpoints]:

Farrell Till, (http://www.mantis.co.uk/2biolo91.html) states:

"But as any astronomer knows, evening (night) and morning (daylight) result from the earth's rotation with respect to the sun. With no sun, there would have certainly been evening or night, but there could have been no morning."

Till, (cont.)

"On the fourth day when God created the "two great lights" (the sun and the moon), he created the stars too. This creation of the rest of the universe was treated by the Genesis writer(s) as if it were little more than an afterthought: "he made the stars also" (v:16)."

Till (cont.)

"To the prescientific mind that wrote this, it probably made sense. To him (her), the earth was undoubtedly the center of the universe, but today we know better."

Till (cont.)

"The solar system of which earth is only a tiny part is itself an infinitesimal speck in the universe. Surely, then, the creation of the stars would not have occurred so quickly and suddenly if six days were needed to create the world."

Till, (cont.)

"Scientists now know that the creation of stars is an evolutionary process that is still ongoing. Matter coalesces; stars ignite, shine, and eventually burn out or explode. From the existence of heavy elements in our solar system, astronomers generally agree that it formed from debris left over from a supernova that occurred billions of years ago. The prescientific Genesis writer knew none of this, however, and that is why he viewed the creation of the universe as an Elohistic afterthought. No modern, scientifically-educated writer would have made that mistake."

[Answers from the Bible]


[Objectors Viewpoint]:

Farrell Till, (op. cit.) states:

"The Leviticus writer... was so unobservant.... that he apparently thought insects were four legged creatures....

[and that these insects were unique with legs above their feet]:

.....Now I want some enterprising inerrancy defender to give us a list of insects that don't have legs above their feet."

[Lev 11:20-23 BB]:

(v. 20) "All winged creeping things that go upon all fours are an abomination to you.

(v. 21) Yet these may you eat of all winged creeping things that go on all fours, which have legs above their feet, with which to leap upon the earth;

(v. 22) Yet these may you eat of all winged creeping things that go on all fours, which have legs above their feet, with which to leap upon the earth;

(v. 23) even these of them you may eat: the locust after its kind, the bald locust after its kind, the cricket after its kind, and the grasshopper after its kind. But all winged creeping things, which have four feet, are an abomination to you."

a) [Compare excerpt from this site: https://christianchildrensauthors.com/2013/07/08/leviticus-1120-23-insects-that-walk-on-four-legs/]

"Today’s elementary children are taught that insects have six legs, and rightly so. This is how insects have been classified by scientists around the world. Yet Leviticus 11:21 refers to insects such as grasshoppers, crickets, locusts, and katydids as insects that walk on four legs.

When Moses wrote the first five books of the Old Testament (including Leviticus) he didn’t first graduate from one of our schools to learn the word “insect.” He spoke ancient Hebrew. In his language there was a word that meant “fly” (עוף ooph). The following quote comes from the website “Ancient Hebrew Research Center.

Fly (עוף ooph, Strong’s #5774): This verb means ‘to fly’ while the noun form, pronounced oph [str:5775] but spelled the same, is a ‘flyer’ and can be a bird, bat or insect, anything that flies. Hebrew commonly uses word puns, words of similar sounds together. Genesis 1:20 is a good example where it says ve’oph ye’oph which means “flyers flying.”

So when we read the word “insect” in the Bible, we must understand that Moses never intended to be this specific in his word choices. Bible translators have made their best effort to put the Hebrew words of these ancient people into our language, and when it appeared that they were talking about insects, they used the English word insect.

The specific insects spoken of in Leviticus 11:21-22 were identified by our translators as grasshoppers, crickets, locusts, and katydids. If you watch these insects move around you will notice that when they are walking they use their front four legs to get them where they want to go while the back legs must simply follow or drag along. But if they need to hop, they use their over-sized back legs. The writer of Leviticus was simply using the language of his day to describe the difference between these flying creatures and other insects, birds, and bats.

Verse 23 speaks of other flying “insects” that have four legs, but the original text likely only meant flying creatures, not “insects.” This verse could easily have referred to bats, which sound pretty detestable as a food to me.





Greg hartman states:


[Objectors Viewpoint]

"You maintain that the Bible is INERRENT; but I can point out some errors. The Bible mentions [that] the taxonomic classification of chiropterians, and it is wrong [in the way that it does]. These references do show some evidence of errors within the work."

[Greg Hartman's Answer]

There are three references to bats in the Bible -- Lev. 11:19, Deut. 14:18, and Isa. 2:20. The latter reference mentions bats by themselves, so it is probably not the "mistake" you have in mind. The first two, however, mention bats in lists with birds. I'll take a wild stab here and guess you're calling it a mistake to list bats with birds. Fair enough; I can offer two answers to that, the first of which is not satisfactory, but the second of which is:

1. In Deuteronomy the Hebrew word ôwph is used to define the list of vertebrates (KJV renders it "fowls"). This word means, literally, "to cover with wings" or "winged creature." I could argue that such a word could encompass bats as well as birds, but this is not a satisfactory argument, for two reasons:

It still makes the error you're talking about by classifying bats with birds, and Deuteronomy 14:18's enharmonic reference, Lev. 11:19, uses the Hebrew word tsippôn, which means "bird" in no uncertain terms. Thus we must conclude, in harmonizing the two references, that the specific term "bird" (tsippôn ) in Leviticus, by the law of harmonics and the law of first-mention, instructs us to interpret the generic term "winged creature" (ôwph ) in Deuteronomy as "bird" (and it is so rendered in the NIV and most other translations).

Therefore, we are left with the certainty that both lists should be classified as lists of birds, and not just lists of generic "winged creatures." This leads us to the second answer:

2. Since we know we are definitely talking about a list of birds, how can we account for the presence of the bat here? The word rendered "bat" is the Hebrew 'atallęph. This word, like several others in the same list, is of uncertain origin (don't take my word for it; look at the footnotes of the NIV for Lev. 11:20, which ends the list, and it will tell you that the precise identity of several animals in the list are uncertain). The Hebrew lexicon's definition for 'atallęph says the same thing ("of uncertain derivation").

What I'm saying is this: we simply do not know exactly what vertebrate is being described here, or in several other instances in the same passage.

In other words: the jury's still out and you have no solid idea whether or not this is actually a mistake -- and you won't until and unless this word can be precisely defined.

To digress a second: the KJV mentions the unicorn in several places (Num. 23:22, 24:8; Job 39:9-10; Ps. 29:6, 92:10). "Ha!" some skeptics still try to gloat, "everyone knows there's no such thing!"

Well, the word "unicorn" is the Hebrew word re'ęym. In 1611, the translators working on the KJV simply did not know what animal this word referred to, so they did the same thing the translators of the NIV did with 'atallęph : they guessed. Problem was, they not only guessed the wrong animal, they picked an animal that didn't even exist (though of course at that time they thought it did).

In the intervening years, Bible scholars have learned that re'ęym refers to the auerochs (L. Bos primigenius ), a now-extinct species of wild ox. Look up all the KJV references to the unicorn in the NIV and you'll see (surprise!) re'ęym rendered as "wild ox." The auerochs was already extinct in 1611, and its prior existence was not known at that time (given that the science of paleontology did not really exist yet). This forced the translators to guess (there is a technical word for guesses like this -- which, BTW, are few and far between -- but it escapes me at the moment. But I'd rather call a spade a spade anyway).

But the auerochs WAS still alive in Bible times. Julius Caesar saw it and wrote about it (see Coes., Bell. Gall., iv. 29). He described it as immense in size, of great strength (cf. Num.23:22; 24:8), speed (Ps. 29:6), and ferocity, and that it was untamable (Job 39:9-10). It became extinct in Europe in the Middle Ages; somewhat earlier in Syria-Palestine, and its name transrferred to the common ox (which still exists; the Arab cognate is r'im ).

This is a great example of an assertion I've made all along: that the Bible and science have nothing to fear from one another. In this case, philology (the Akkadian cognate, rimu, describes the auerochs) and paleontology (Tristram independently corrorborated its existence in the Lebanon Mountains) helped solve a translation problem.

I said all that to say this: it is entirely possible that the Hebrew word 'atallęph refers to a species of bird we simply don't know about -- you know as well as I do that our taxonomic catalog is FAR from complete -- and which may be extinct to boot.

The bottom line is this: over 200 Hebrew scholars worked on the NIV, but they collectively felt unsure enough about the translation of 'atallęph to put in a footnote explaining that they simply aren't sure what the word means. That being the case, I'll say this: if 200 Hebrew scholars weren't sure what the word meant, it is premature to announce with any degree of certainty that you DO -- because until and unless the word is solidly defined, you'll either have to admit you don't have a leg to stand on, or you'll have to pretend you are the only person in the world who knows the precise definition of atallęph.


The reference to "bats" in Lev. 11:19 and Deut. 14:18 is highly uncertain. It is not a taxonomy problem; it is a translation problem. Until and unless the Hebrew word 'atallęph can be precisely and certainly identified, there are no solid grounds upon which to assume an error exists here. This does NOT prove a Bible error, therefore; it proves only that our knowledge of ancient Hebrew -- much as it has improved since 1611 -- still has room to improve.

Finally, Does the bible describe bats as being a bird?
Modern science indicates that taxonomically speaking, bats aren't birds, but mammals.
The Hebrew word for fowl in these verses is עוֹף, which means "wing" (winged creatures).

Be aware also that there is a kind of "bananas are berries" approach to scientific terminology that mistakes the map for the territory. "Bats" are not "birds", but this is because we choose to define the category "bird" in a certain way, and the category "bat" in a certain way. We didn't "discover that bats aren't birds" since Lev. was written, rather we changed the meaning of "bird". The sentence "bats are birds" does not necessarily assert incorrectly that bats have feathers, if the person stating it intentionally means a different thing by the category "bird" than you do.


Om*nip"o*tent\, a. [F., fr.L. omnipotens, -entis; omnis all + potens powerful, potent. See Potent.] 1. Able in every respect and for every work; unlimited in ability; all-powerful; almighty; as, the Being that can create worlds must be omnipotent."

This does not translate that one will do anything - just that one has the capacity to do anything.

Just as one has the power to kill one’s own child, most sane parents cannot. That does not mean they don’t have the power.

In the same way God has to power to solve the sin problem in a number of ways, but that does not mean He can violate His holiness and permit sin to exist or deal with it in an unrighteous way. So although God indeed has the power to do anything, He is limited in the expression of that power by His holiness.



1) [Compare Jn 2:13-19]:

(v. 13) When it was almost time for the Jewish Passover, Jesus went up to Jerusalem.

(v. 14) In the temple courts he found men selling cattle, sheep and doves, and others sitting at tables exchanging money.

(v. 15) So he made a whip out of cords, and drove all from the temple area, both sheep and cattle; he scattered the coins of the money changers and overturned their tables.

(v. 16) To those who sold doves he said, "Get these out of here! How dare you turn my Father's house into a market!"

(v. 17) His disciples remembered that it is written: "Zeal for your house will consume me."

(v. 18) Then the Jews demanded of him, "What miraculous sign can you show us to prove your authority to do all this?"

(v. 19) Jesus answered them, "Destroy this temple, and I will raise it again in three days." '''


1) [Mt 21:12-19]:

(v. 12) '''Jesus entered the temple area and drove out all who were buying and selling there. He overturned the tables of the money changers and the benches of those selling doves.

(v. 13) "It is written," he said to them, " 'My house will be called a house of prayer,' but you are making it a 'den of robbers.' "

(v. 14) The blind and the lame came to him at the temple, and he healed them.

(v. 15) But when the chief priests and the teachers of the law saw the wonderful things he did and the children shouting in the temple area, "Hosanna to the Son of David," they were indignant.

(v. 16) "Do you hear what these children are saying?" they asked him. "Yes," replied Jesus, "have you never read, " 'From the lips of children and infants you have ordained praise' ?"

(v. 17) And he left them and went out of the city to Bethany, where he spent the night.

(v. 18) Early in the morning, as he was on his way back to the city, he was hungry.

(v. 19) Seeing a fig tree by the road, he went up to it but found nothing on it except leaves. Then he said to it, "May you never bear fruit again!" Immediately the tree withered.'''

2) [Compare Mk 11:12-24]:

(v. 12) '''The next day as they were leaving Bethany, Jesus was hungry. 

(v. 13) Seeing in the distance a fig tree in leaf, he went to find out if it had any fruit. When he reached it, he found nothing but leaves, because it was not the season for figs.

(v. 14) Then he said to the tree, "May no one ever eat fruit from you again." And his disciples heard him say it.

(v. 15) On reaching Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple area and began driving out those who were buying and selling there. He overturned the tables of the money changers and the benches of those selling doves,

(v. 16) and would not allow anyone to carry merchandise through the temple courts.

(v. 17) And as he taught them, he said, "Is it not written: " 'My house will be called a house of prayer for all nations' ? But you have made it 'a den of robbers.' "

[Mark 11:16 -17 informs us that Jesus 'looked round about upon all things' after he had entered the temple. This action was highly symbolic. Jesus was treating the temple as a house which had been declared as leprous.

The law of Moses was quite specific in instructing Israel how they should deal with a house which had leprosy. If it is suspected that the house is stricken with leprosy the priest is advised. of the problem and [Leviticus 14:36-38] 'Then the priest shall command that they empty the house, before the priest go into it to see the plague, that all that is in the house be not made unclean: and afterward the priest shall go in to see the house: And he shall look on the plague, and, behold, if the plague be in the walls of the house with hollow strakes, greenish or reddish, which in sight are lower than the wall; Then the priest shall go out of the house to the door of the house, and shut up the house seven days:' After seven days the priest was to return and reassess the situation. If the house was still leprous [Leviticus 14:40-41] 'Then the priest shall command that they take away the stones in which the plague is, and they shall cast them into an unclean place without the city: And he shall cause the house to be scraped within round about, and they shall pour out the dust that they scrape off without the city into an unclean place:'. If this remedy did not work [Leviticus 14:44-45] 'Then the priest shall come and look, and, behold, if the plague be spread in the house, it is a fretting leprosy in the house: it is unclean. And he shall break down the house, the stones of it, and the timber thereof, and all the mortar of the house; and he shall carry them forth out of the city into an unclean place.'

So we see that there was a threefold inspection by the priest. On the first occasion the condition is confirmed. The second visit examines the condition and the third visit condemns the house which is still plagued with the fretting leprosy'.

On the occasion of the first Passover during the ministry of Jesus he cleansed the temple. for we read [John 2:13-16] 'And the Jews' Passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem, And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting: And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables; And said unto them that sold doves, Take these things hence; make not my Father's house an house of merchandise.'

On this fifth day before the Passover Jesus [Mark 11:11] 'entered into Jerusalem, and into the temple: and when he had looked round about upon all things, and now the eventide was come, he went out unto Bethany' This visit answered to the second visit of the priest. On this occasion Jesus was assessing whether his first cleaning three years earlier had achieved the desired effect. His inspection confirmed that the house was still leprous. There was nothing left to do. Jesus knew that the house had to be destroyed.

He returned the next day and [Mark 11:15] 'Jesus went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves;' On this occasion we are informed that he [Mark 11:16] 'would not suffer that any man should carry any vessel through the temple'. which answers to the injunction [Leviticus 14:36] 'Then the priest shall command that they empty the house, before the priest go into it to see the plague, that all that is in the house be not made unclean: and afterward the priest shall go in to see the house:'

The destruction of the temple by the Romans in AD 70 when not one stone was to be left upon another answers to the breaking down of the leprous house]

2 cont.) [Compare Mk 11:12-24 (cont.)]:

(v. 18) The chief priests and the teachers of the law heard this and began looking for a way to kill him, for they feared him, because the whole crowd was amazed at his teaching.

(v. 19) When evening came, they went out of the city.

(v. 20) In the morning, as they went along, they saw the fig tree withered from the roots.

(v. 21) Peter remembered and said to Jesus, "Rabbi, look! The fig tree you cursed has withered!"

(v. 22) "Have faith in God," Jesus answered.

(v. 23) "I tell you the truth, if anyone says to this mountain, 'Go, throw yourself into the sea,' and does not doubt in his heart but believes that what he says will happen, it will be done for him.

(v. 24) Therefore I tell you, whatever you ask for in prayer, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours.'''

3) [Luke 19:45-47]:

(v. 45) '''Then he entered the temple area and began driving out those who were selling.

(v. 46) "It is written," he said to them, " 'My house will be a house of prayer;' but you have made it 'a den of robbers.'

(v. 47) Every day he was teaching at the temple. But the chief priests, the teachers of the law and the leaders among the people were trying to kill him.'''


Notice that the account in John is at the beginning of our Lord's ministry and the Matthew, Mark and Luke accounts are at the end. Evidently our Lord cleansed the temple more than once.

[Norman Geisler and Thomas Howe, 'When Critics Ask, Victor Books, USA, 1992, pp. 354-5]:


Matthew places the cursing of the fig tree after the cleansing of the temple. But Mark places the cursing before the temple was cleansed. But, it cannot be both. Did one Gospel writer make a mistake?


Jesus actually cursed the fig tree on His way to the temple as Mark said, but this does not mean that Matthew's account is mistaken. Christ made two trips to the temple, and He cursed the fig tree on His second trip.

Mark 11:11 says that Christ entered the temple the day of His triumphal entry. When Christ enters the temple, Mark does not mention Christ making any proclamations against any wrongdoing. Verse 12 says 'Now the next day,' referring to the trip to the fig tree on the way to the temple on the second day. On this day, Christ threw out those buying and selling in the temple. Matthew, however, addresses the two trips of Christ to the temple as though they were one event. This gives the impression that the first day Christ entered the temple He drove out the buyers and sellers as well. Mark's account, however, gives more detail to the events, revealing that there were actually two trips to the temple. In view of this, we have no reason to believe that there is a discrepancy in the accounts."

[The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Walvoord & Zuck Editors, Victor Books, USA, p. 279]:

"Jesus protested the turning of His Father's house into a market. He did not protest the sacrificial system itself. The purpose of the sacrifices was in danger of being lost. In the second cleansing of the temple [reported in Scripture] toward the end of His ministry [Mt 21:12-19; cf Mk 11:15-18; Lk 19:45-47] Jesus' attack was sharper. Then He called the temple area 'a den of robbers' (Luke 19:46; cf. Jer 7:11)."

Finally, in AD 70,4Rome destroyed the temple as Jesus predicted:

[Mk 13:1-2]:

(Mk 13:1 NASB) "As He was going out of the temple, one of His disciples *said to Him, 'Teacher, behold what wonderful stones and what wonderful buildings!'

(Mk 13:2 NASB) And Jesus said to him, 'Do you see these great buildings? Not one stone will be left upon another which will not be torn down.' "


[2 Samuel 24:13]:

"So Gad went to David and said to him, "Shall there come upon you three [seven in the MT] years of famine in your land? Or three months of fleeing from your enemies while they pursue you? Or three days of plague in your land? Now then, think it over and decide how I should answer the one who sent me."

[1 Chronicles 21:11-13]:

(v. 11) "So Gad went to David and said to him, "This is what the LORD says: 'Take your choice:

(v. 12) three years of famine, three months of being swept away before your enemies, with their swords overtaking you, or three days of the sword of the LORD -days of plague in the land, with the angel of the LORD ravaging every part of Israel.' Now then, decide how I should answer the one who sent me."

Hebrew manuscripts and the Masoretic [Hebrew] Text offer seven years of famine in 2 Sam 24:13. Other Hebrew manuscript evidence more recently discovered having three, the 1 Chronicle text being considered as better preserved, the Septuagint which has three, the symmetry of the three punishments all being three years and the easy possibility of mistaking the Hebrew character 3 for 7 lead to the resolution of this alleged contradiction as three instead of seven years in 2 Sam 24:13. This is reflected in some well received translations such as the NIV.


Ans: If He could, He wouldn't be God. And since only God can create out of nothing - such as a rock - then only God could create a rock. But since God cannot do that which violates His character or is outside of His capacity, such as creating a rock that He cannot lift, i.e., doing something that which reflects less than omnipotency, then the question is not logical and by virtue of that, cannot be posed. Certainly God, being almighty, cannot prove that He isn't almighty, which is the implication with the nonsensical question in the first place.




FROM ANSWERS IN GENESIS {short description of image}

Contradictory or Complementary Accounts?

“To the mountain”

So where exactly did Jesus appear, and to whom? Some question the Bible’s internal consistency on the basis of the phrase “to the mountain.”

Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, to the mountain which Jesus had appointed for them. When they saw Him, they worshiped Him; but some doubted. (Matthew 28:16–17, emphasis added)

Did Jesus appear to the eleven on a mountain in Galilee or in Jerusalem behind closed doors? Does this account in Matthew contradict those in Mark, Luke, and John?

Later He appeared to the eleven as they sat at the table; and He rebuked their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they did not believe those who had seen Him after He had risen. (Mark 16:14)

So they rose up that very hour and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven and those who were with them gathered together, saying, “The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon!” And they told about the things that had happened on the road, and how He was known to them in the breaking of bread. Now as they said these things, Jesus Himself stood in the midst of them, and said to them, “Peace to you.” But they were terrified and frightened, and supposed they had seen a spirit. (Luke 24:33–37, emphasis in original)

Then, the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the midst, and said to them, “Peace be with you.” When He had said this, He showed them His hands and His side. Then the disciples were glad when they saw the Lord. (John 20:19–20, emphasis in original)

Following His Resurrection from the dead, Jesus made a number of appearances to his followers—no less than ten of these are recorded in Scripture. Beginning on Resurrection Sunday, He “showed himself alive . . . by many infallible proofs” (Acts 1:3, KJV) and instructed His apostles and many other followers periodically for forty days. He then ascended from Mount Olivet, near Jerusalem, while the apostles watched (Acts 1:9–12). To sort out the verses in question, we need to examine several appearances in terms of when and where they occurred and who witnessed them.

Paul included a summary statement in 1 Corinthians 15 that provides information about these appearances and others unrecorded in the Gospels or Acts.

For I delivered to you first of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures, and that He was seen by Cephas, then by the twelve. After that He was seen by over five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater part remain to the present, but some have fallen asleep. After that He was seen by James, then by all the apostles. (1 Corinthians 15:3–7)

We know that those appearances include a visit with Cephas (Peter), to “the twelve” after that, and subsequently to over five hundred people at once, most of whom were still living eyewitnesses at the time Paul wrote his letter.

Eleven or Twelve?

Some may point out that with Judas dead Paul was wrong in referring to “the twelve.” However, by the time Paul wrote this letter, Matthias had replaced the betrayer (Acts 1:20–26). Notably, the eleven agreed that the replacement had to be a man who had been with them from the time of the Lord’s baptism until the day He ascended.1 In fact, one of the key purposes of this appointment was that the new apostle be a witness to the Resurrection. So by the time Paul wrote his epistles, Matthias had joined “the eleven” and was himself a witness of the resurrected Christ, so it is perfectly accurate to refer to this group as “the twelve.” This scene is a reminder that Jesus had many other followers besides the select apostles.

The Women

In order to reconcile all four Gospel accounts of the women’s actions, we need to focus first on the earliest Resurrection Sunday appearances. Matthew 28, Mark 16, Luke 24, and John 20 each open with the arrival of the women (including Mary Magdalene) at the tomb.2 They find it empty with the stone rolled away.

We propose that Mary Magdalene separated from the other women after the initial visit to the tomb. It seems that she hastened off to find Peter and the “other disciple” (John). The other nine disciples were apparently not with Peter and John that morning and were informed of the empty tomb by the other women.3 John 20:1–2 tells us that Mary Magdalene told them the Lord’s body was missing. After Peter and John viewed the empty tomb and departed, Mary Magdalene remained behind weeping, saw the angels in the tomb, asked about the missing body, and then had her own conversation with Jesus Himself. In John 20:17 Jesus sent her off to tell His brethren that He is alive, and verse 18 states that she obeyed. Mark 16:9–11 adds that Mary Magdalene was the first to whom the Lord appeared and that the disciples did not believe her story.

Meanwhile, the other women, finding the stone rolled away, entered the tomb and saw an angel sitting on the right. Suddenly they realized there were two angels, as Luke recorded. Matthew and Mark just mention one of them, perhaps focusing on the one who was speaking (Matthew 28:5–7; Mark 16:5–7; Luke 24:4–8). The angel tells the women to go tell the disciples and Peter—alluding to the estrangement of Peter after his denial and suggesting he wasn’t with the larger group—that Jesus was risen and would see them in Galilee.

Matthew 28:8–10 states that the women took off running to find the disciples. They may have just missed Peter and John, who were on their way to the tomb. Evidently while these women were en route to find the disciples in the city, Peter and John viewed the empty tomb, and Mary Magdalene had her encounter with Jesus. After appearing to Mary Magdalene, Jesus visited the women who were running to the city, and He reinforced the message that they should go tell His brethren that they would see Him in Galilee. Perhaps Jesus made this personal appearance because they were so terribly afraid and too fearful to speak to anyone (Mark 16:8). After He met them, they joyfully delivered the message. Luke 24:9–11 summarizes the fact that “the eleven and all the rest” ultimately heard about Christ’s Resurrection from all the women, including Mary Magdalene. Yet no one believed them.

The Empty Tomb and Beyond

Matthew 28:11–15 tells us of another important event on that Sunday morning. The guards told the chief priests what had happened. With the help of bribes in the right places, the chief priests hatched and spread the tale that the disciples had stolen the body while the guards slept. In so doing they confirmed for all of history that the tomb was really empty.

The events described in the remaining verses in Matthew 28 did not occur on that Sunday. Matthew 28:16 reveals that the disciples went away into Galilee—over a day’s journey at the time—prior to the appearance recorded in verse 17. So this event followed some of those described in the other Gospels.

Jesus made two other recorded appearances to individuals before He ever appeared to the eleven as a group. The first is recorded in Luke 24:13–35 and briefly in Mark 16:12–13. After hearing the women’s report and Peter and John’s account of the empty tomb, Clopas and his companion set out on the road to Emmaus. During their trip they met with Jesus and were treated to an eye-opening Bible lesson as Jesus explained the Old Testament Scriptures that had been fulfilled by His suffering, death, and Resurrection. When the pair discovered that they had been breaking bread with Jesus, they hurried back to the city to report to the group. Upon arrival, they learned that the Lord had also had a personal meeting with Simon Peter. That meeting with Peter is reported in Luke 24:34, but we have no other details about it.

Finally we come to the verses in question. By this time it is Sunday evening. Luke 24:33 tells us that the Emmaus road pair reported to “the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them.” But we know Thomas was not present when Jesus made His appearance to this group. Perhaps Thomas stepped out for some reason, or just wasn’t with them at the time and “the eleven” was a term used as a general description of the group of disciples once Judas had died. John 20:26 tells us that Thomas had to wait another eight days for Jesus to appear to the group again.

Matthew did not record any of Christ’s appearances on that day to “the eleven” while still in the city, but Mark and Luke contain this information. We know from Luke’s account that other people were also in attendance with the disciples when Jesus ate in their presence, proving His body was alive again (Luke 24:42). During these two Jerusalem appearances He assured His followers that He was indeed alive.


The Galilean appearances are not recorded in Mark and Luke but are described in Matthew 28:16–17 and John 21. Matthew 28:16 records that the eleven went to Galilee, evidently waiting for Jesus to appear as He’d promised in the message delivered by the women. According to John 21, Peter and six others decided to go fishing. Jesus instructed them to cast their net on the other side of the boat. When the disciples came ashore they found Jesus cooking breakfast for them. Jesus had His well-known “feed my sheep” conversation with Peter and told him about his future martyrdom. John mentions that this was “the third time Jesus showed Himself to His disciples after He was raised from the dead,” meaning that it was the third time He appeared to them as a group (John 21:14). The first meeting was with the eleven minus Thomas, and the second meeting was when Thomas was present.

The appearance on the appointed mountain in Galilee (Matthew 28:16–17) took place sometime after the shoreline appearance. These verses actually pick up the narrative of the chapter quite logically, since a few verses earlier Jesus had told the women to tell His brethren they’d see Him in Galilee. After the parenthetical comments about the story the Jewish leaders concocted to explain away the missing body, the account takes us to Galilee, to the appearance just promised.

Many suspect that this meeting on the mountain in Galilee was the occasion in which Jesus appeared to over five hundred people at one time (1 Corinthians 15:6). By this time word of Christ’s promised appearance would have spread among His many followers and given them time to arrive. Matthew 28:16–17 does not specifically state that others were present with the disciples, nothing in the verse precludes the possibility that more followers had gathered there. Seeing Jesus there, the disciples worshiped Him, although others still were doubtful. The eleven had by now seen Jesus more than once, and some had even eaten with Him, so “some doubted” likely refers to others who had not seen Him before.

Last Appearances

We learn from 1 Corinthians 15:7 that Jesus met with His half-brother James after appearing on the mountain. While we cannot be sure of the place of this meeting, it makes sense that it would have happened in Galilee, since that is where Jesus and James grew up, and where James shows up in the Gospel narratives (Matthew 12:46–50; cf. Matthew 13:55). Wherever this occurred, it seems to have been a catalyst for James, who was a skeptic (John 7:5), to believe that his half-brother truly was and is the Son of God.

1 Corinthians 15:7 also explains that Christ was seen by all the apostles one more time after His visit with James. This event is recorded in Acts 1 (cf. Matthew 28:18–20; Mark 16:14–19; Luke 24:44–53), Jesus led the apostles as far as Bethany on the eastern side of Mount Olivet near Jerusalem. There He gave them their final instructions before He ascended into heaven.

The Apostle Paul stated, “Then last of all He was seen by me also, as by one born out of due time.” This appearance occurred while Paul (then called Saul) was traveling to Damascus on a mission to persecute Christians (Acts 9:1–9; 1 Corinthians 15:7).


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Assuming the infallibility of Scripture, thus the verity of the eyewitness accounts, here is one possible post-Resurrection/pre-Ascension timeline that may account for all that’s revealed to us in God’s Holy Word.4

As the proposed timeline above shows, there are absolutely no contradictions in the accounts of the post-Resurrection appearances of Jesus. Like a good reporter piecing together a story from reliable eyewitnesses, we must examine all the eyewitness accounts recorded in God’s Word, realize by faith that for Scripture to be reliable they must all be true, and then see how they fit together without any contrivances. Together, these accounts tell us about the most important truth in the history of the world: Jesus Christ the Son of God died for our sins and rose again, conquering sin and death for our salvation and for the glory of God. And those who did not see Him—like us—have also been called to believe on Him and are promised the incredible blessing of eternal life for that belief (1 Peter 1:8–9).

a) [Hab 1:13]:


(Hab 1:13 NKJV) "You are of purer eyes than to behold evil,

And cannot look on wickedness.

Why do You look on those who deal treacherously,

And hold Your tongue when the wicked devours

A person more righteous than he?"

The Hebrew verb "navat," def. "to look intently at; by implication from the context and the Hithpael stem. Hence Heb 1:13 is not saying that God cannot look at sin, but that He cannot look at it intently in the sense of approval or favor.

Furthermore, God is omniscient hence knows all things including acts of sin which men commit.



Some contend that there is a chronological contradiction between Matthew's and Luke's accounts of Jesus' healing of the Centurion's servant and the grain plucking and healing on the Sabbath. Firstly, Matthew places the 'Grain Plucking' and 'Withered Hand' episodes chronologically after the Healing of the Centurion's Servant, while Luke addresses topically the two Sabbath events in chapter 6 before he writes of the Centurion's Servant's healing in chapter 7.

The following chart compares the passages to help determine when the authors are writing chronologically and when they are writing topically.

Mt 8:5 Lk 7:1-10
Matthew 8:1 (NKJV) 1 '''When He had come down from the mountain, great multitudes followed Him.'''

Matthew 8:2-4 (NKJV) 2 '''And behold, a leper came and worshiped Him, saying, "Lord, if You are willing, You can make me clean." 3 Then Jesus put out His hand and touched him, saying, "I am willing; be cleansed." Immediately his leprosy was cleansed. 4 And Jesus said to him, "See that you tell no one; but go your way, show yourself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, as a testimony to them."

Jesus had come down from the mountain - after His Sermon on Mount

Jesus healed the leper

[The wording is chronological but not all events are included]
Luke 7:1 (NKJV) 1 '''Now when He concluded all His sayings in the hearing of the people, He entered Capernaum.'''

Jesus concluded His sayings, i.e., concluded His Sermon on Mount - on a level place on the mountain, (ref. Lk 6:12-49).

Luke did not include the healing of the leper

[The wording is chronological but not all events are included]
Matthew 8:5-13 (NKJV) 5 '''Now when Jesus had entered Capernaum, a centurion came to Him, pleading with Him, 6 saying, "Lord, my servant is lying at home paralyzed, dreadfully tormented." 7 And Jesus said to him, "I will come and heal him." 8 The centurion answered and said, "Lord, I am not worthy that You should come under my roof. But only speak a word, and my servant will be healed. 9 For I also am a man under authority, having soldiers under me. And I say to this one, 'Go,' and he goes; and to another, 'Come,' and he comes; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it." 10 When Jesus heard it, He marveled, and said to those who followed, "Assuredly, I say to you, I have not found such great faith, not even in Israel! 11 And I say to you that many will come from east and west, and sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven. 12 But the sons of the kingdom will be cast out into outer darkness. There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth." 13 Then Jesus said to the centurion, "Go your way; and as you have believed, so let it be done for you." And his servant was healed that same hour.'''

Jesus entered Capernaum
Jesus healed the Centurion's servant
[The wording is chronological but not all events are included]
Luke 7:1-10 (NKJV) 1 '''Now when He concluded all His sayings in the hearing of the people, He entered Capernaum. 2 And a certain centurion's servant, who was dear to him, was sick and ready to die. 3 So when he heard about Jesus, he sent elders of the Jews to Him, pleading with Him to come and heal his servant. 4 And when they came to Jesus, they begged Him earnestly, saying that the one for whom He should do this was deserving, 5 "for he loves our nation, and has built us a synagogue." 6 Then Jesus went with them. And when He was already not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to Him, saying to Him, "Lord, do not trouble Yourself, for I am not worthy that You should enter under my roof. 7 Therefore I did not even think myself worthy to come to You. But say the word, and my servant will be healed. 8 For I also am a man placed under authority, having soldiers under me. And I say to one, 'Go,' and he goes; and to another, 'Come,' and he comes; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it." 9 When Jesus heard these things, He marveled at him, and turned around and said to the crowd that followed Him, "I say to you, I have not found such great faith, not even in Israel!" 10 And those who were sent, returning to the house, found the servant well who had been sick.'''

Jesus entered Capernaum
Jesus healed the Centurion's servant
[The wording is chronological but not all events are included]


Matthew 8:14-15 (NKJV) 14 '''Now when Jesus had come into Peter's house, He saw his wife's mother lying sick with a fever. 15 So He touched her hand, and the fever left her. And she arose and served them.''' (Mk 1:29-34; Lk 4:38-39)

Healing of Peter's mother-in-law is indicated as coming after the healing of the Centurion's servant. There is neither a specific time nor any events stipulated as directly following the healing of the Centurion's servant which allows for Jesus' next day's raising of the dead in Nain in Lk 7:11-17 to occur beforehand

[The wording is chronological but not all events are included]
Luke 7:11-17 (NKJV) 11 Now it happened, the day after, that He went into a city called Nain; and many of His disciples went with Him, and a large crowd. 12 And when He came near the gate of the city, behold, a dead man was being carried out, the only son of his mother; and she was a widow. And a large crowd from the city was with her. 13 When the Lord saw her, He had compassion on her and said to her, "Do not weep." 14 Then He came and touched the open coffin, and those who carried him stood still. And He said, "Young man, I say to you, arise." 15 So he who was dead sat up and began to speak. And He presented him to his mother. 16 Then fear came upon all, and they glorified God, saying, "A great prophet has risen up among us"; and, "God has visited His people." 17 And this report about Him went throughout all Judea and all the surrounding region.'''

Luke 4:38-39 (NKJV) 38 Now He arose from the synagogue and entered Simon's house. But Simon's wife's mother was sick with a high fever, and they made request of Him concerning her. 39 So He stood over her and rebuked the fever, and it left her. And immediately she arose and served them.

The phrase, "The next day" in Lk 7:11 indicates chronologically that Jesus' raising up of the man in Nain came the day after the healing of the Centurion's servant.
On the other hand Luke's account of Jesus' healing of Peter's mother in law as indicated in an earlier chapter, (Lk 4:38-39), came after Jesus exorcised a demon in the Synagogue in Capernaum. Author Luke evidently was not arranging everything chronologically all the time. He often wrote topically, but nevertheless reported events chronologically such as Jesus raising of the dead in Nain the day after the healing of the Centurion's servant

[There is no chronological conflict between Luke's and Matthew's account]
Matthew 12:1-4 Luke 6:1-11 => Note: this is a previous chapter

Matthew 11:1-30 (NKJV) 1 '''Now it came to pass, when Jesus finished commanding His twelve disciples, that He departed from there to teach and to preach in their cities. 2 And when John had heard in prison about the works of Christ, he sent two of his disciples 3 and said to Him, "Are You the Coming One, or do we look for another?" 4 Jesus answered and said to them, "Go and tell John the things which you hear and see: 5 The blind see and the lame walk; the lepers are cleansed and the deaf hear; the dead are raised up and the poor have the gospel preached to them. 6 And blessed is he who is not offended because of Me." 7 As they departed, Jesus began to say to the multitudes concerning John: "What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken by the wind? 8 But what did you go out to see? A man clothed in soft garments? Indeed, those who wear soft clothing are in kings' houses. 9 But what did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes, I say to you, and more than a prophet. 10 For this is he of whom it is written: 'Behold, I send My messenger before Your face, Who will prepare Your way before You.' 11 "Assuredly, I say to you, among those born of women there has not risen one greater than John the Baptist; but he who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. 12 And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffers violence, and the violent take it by force. 13 For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John. 14 And if you are willing to receive it, he is Elijah who is to come. 15 He who has ears to hear, let him hear! 16 But to what shall I liken this generation? It is like children sitting in the marketplaces and calling to their companions, 17 and saying: 'We played the flute for you, And you did not dance; We mourned to you, And you did not lament' 18 For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, 'He has a demon.' 19 The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, 'Look, a glutton and a winebibber, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!' But wisdom is justified by her children." 20 Then He began to rebuke the cities in which most of His mighty works had been done, because they did not repent: 21 "Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the mighty works which were done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. 22 But I say to you, it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the day of judgment than for you. 23 And you, Capernaum, who are exalted to heaven, will be brought down to Hades; for if the mighty works which were done in you had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day. 24 But I say to you that it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgment than for you." 25 At that time Jesus answered and said, "I thank You, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that You have hidden these things from the wise and prudent and have revealed them to babes. 26 Even so, Father, for so it seemed good in Your sight. 27 All things have been delivered to Me by My Father, and no one knows the Son except the Father. Nor does anyone know the Father except the Son, and the one to whom the Son wills to reveal Him. 28 Come to Me, all you who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. 29 Take My yoke upon you and learn from Me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. 30 For My yoke is easy and My burden is light." '''

Reproaching the unrepenting cities
Come to me... Take My yoke upon you

[The wording is chronological but not all events are included]

Luke 5:27-39 (NKJV) 27 After these things He went out and saw a tax collector named Levi, sitting at the tax office. And He said to him, "Follow Me." 28 So he left all, rose up, and followed Him. 29 Then Levi gave Him a great feast in his own house. And there were a great number of tax collectors and others who sat down with them. 30 And their scribes and the Pharisees complained against His disciples, saying, "Why do You eat and drink with tax collectors and sinnerS?" 31 Jesus answered and said to them, "Those who are well have no need of a physician, but those who are sick. 32 I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners, to repentance." 33 Then they said to Him, "Why do the disciples of John fast often and make prayers, and likewise those of the Pharisees, but Yours eat and drink?" 34 And He said to them, "Can you make the friends of the bridegroom fast while the bridegroom is with them? 35 But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them; then they will fast in those days." 36 Then He spoke a parable to them: "No one puts a piece from a new garment on an old one; otherwise the new makes a tear, and also the piece that was taken out of the new does not match the old. 37 And no one puts new wine into old wineskins; or else the new wine will burst the wineskins and be spilled, and the wineskins will be ruined. 38 But new wine must be put into new wineskins, and both are preserved. 39 And no one, having drunk old wine, immediately desires new; for he says, 'The old is better.' "

Calling of Levi to be a disciple, (Lk 5:27-28)
Jesus Eats with Sinners, (Lk 5:29-31)
Jesus teaches about fasting, (Lk 5:33-35)
Jesus teaches the wineskin parable, (Lk 5:36-39)

[The wording is chronological but not all events are included]
'''Matthew 12:1-15 (NKJV) 1 '''At that time Jesus went through the grainfields on the Sabbath. And His disciples were hungry, and began to pluck heads of grain and to eat. 2 And when the Pharisees saw it, they said to Him, "Look, Your disciples are doing what is not lawful to do on the Sabbath!" 3 But He said to them, "Have you not read what David did when he was hungry, he and those who were with him: 4 how he entered the house of God and ate the showbread which was not lawful for him to eat, nor for those who were with him, but only for the priests? 5 Or have you not read in the law that on the Sabbath the priests in the temple profane the Sabbath, and are blameless? 6 Yet I say to you that in this place there is One greater than the temple. 7 But if you had known what this means, 'I desire mercy and not sacrifice,' you would not have condemned the guiltless. 8 For the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath." 9 Now when He had departed from there, He went into their synagogue.
[Note that the wording allows for another Sabbath]
10 And behold, there was a man who had a withered hand. And they asked Him, saying, "Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?" - that they might accuse Him. 11 Then He said to them, "What man is there among you who has one sheep, and if it falls into a pit on the Sabbath, will not lay hold of it and lift it out? 12 Of how much more value then is a man than a sheep? Therefore it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath." 13 Then He said to the man, "Stretch out your hand." And he stretched it out, and it was restored as whole as the other.'''

Plucking grain and healing of withered hand in synagogue on the Sabbath. Note that Matthew's account allows for more than one Sabbath which then does not conflict with Luke's account

[The wording is chronological but not all events are included]
Luke 6:1-10 (NKJV) 1 '''Now it happened on the second Sabbath after the first that He went through the grainfields. And His disciples plucked the heads of grain and ate them, rubbing them in their hands. 2 And some of the Pharisees said to them, "Why are you doing what is not lawful to do on the Sabbath?" 3 But Jesus answering them said, "Have you not even read this, what David did when he was hungry, he and those who were with him: 4 how he went into the house of God, took and ate the showbread, and also gave some to those with him, which is not lawful for any but the priests to eat?" 5 And He said to them, "The Son of Man is also Lord of the Sabbath." 6 Now it happened on another Sabbath, also, that He entered the synagogue and taught. And a man was there whose right hand was withered. 7 So the scribes and Pharisees watched Him closely, whether He would heal on the Sabbath, that they might find an accusation against Him. 8 But He knew their thoughts, and said to the man who had the withered hand, "Arise and stand here." And he arose and stood. 9 Then Jesus said to them, "I will ask you one thing: Is it lawful on the Sabbath to do good or to do evil, to save life or to destroy?" 10 And when He had looked around at them all, He said to the man, "Stretch out your hand." And he did so, and his hand was restored as whole as the other.'''

Plucking grain and healing of withered hand in synagogue on the Sabbath.

[Since Luke's words do not specifically provide a chronological timeframe for the plucking of grain and healing on the Sabbath relative to the healing of the Centurion's servant; and since Matthew's account of the alleged violations of the Sabbath indicate that the plucking of grain and the healing on the Sabbath came after the healing of the Centurion's servant; then it is clear that Luke's account is to be taken as topical - considering the similarity of subject matter. Hence there is no conflict amongst the gospel writers on this issue]

Although the account of the plucking of grain and the healing of the withered hand on the Sabbath in Luke chapter 7 follows the account of the healing of the Centurion's servant in Luke chapter 6, the account in chapter 6 does not contain specific words that indicate that the account of plucking grain and healing of the withered hand on the Sabbath are meant to precede chronologically the healing of the Centurion's servant in Luke chapter 7; nor does the account in chapter 7 contain words that indicate that it must follow that of the account in question in chapter 6. The accounts in chapter 6 are presented as if they were topical not chronological. Matthew's language has specific phrases which indicate that a chronology is in view relative to the two events of alleged Sabbath violation coming after the healing of the Centurion's servant.

Furthermore, Matthew's and Luke's account of the healing of the Centurion's Servant, which are key to placing the two apparently conflicting events in a proper timeframe are most likely the same event considering that it is not likely that Jesus healed two Centurions' slaves, that both Centurions said the same thing, "I am not worthy for you to come under my roof?" and that both Centurion's approached Jesus while He was entering Capernaum.


1 Kgs 4:26 has 40,000 stalls - although one manuscript does have 4,000. The other verse, 2 Chr has 4,000 stalls. Solomon had approximately 1,400 chariots per 2 Chronicles. Hence 4,000 stalls is more reasonable. There is a slight difference between the two numbers. The Hebrew transliterates "arba'at" for 4, "arbA'im" for 40 - very similar - the word thousand being the same in both verses. The manuscripts from which the scribe worked may have been smudged or damaged and have given the appearance of being forty (thousand) rather than four (thousand).


This is clearly a copyist error, which mistook one Hebrew numeral letter "khaph"20 for with one that is very similar in appearance, the letter"mem" for 40. The original text was most likely 22 years old. For in 2 Kings 8:17, Joram, father of Ahaziah and son of Ahab, was 32 years old when he became king. Joram died at age 40, eight years after becoming king. Consequently, his son Ahaziah could not have been 42 when he took the throne after his father's death, otherwise he would have been older than his father. Most versions have 22 years in both verses, the LXX has 22 years for both verses and predates the Masoretic Text.


The reading found in the LXX and 2 Kings 8:26 for Ahaziah's age (NIV mg.) of "twenty-two years" is to be adopted, rather than the MT's "forty-two," which would make him older than his father (cf. 21:20). His reign of "one year" fell entirely within the twelfth year of Joram of Israel (2 Kings 8:25; cf. 3:1), whose death occurred at the same time as his own (9:24, 27), so that his rule must actually have been only a few months.


The 2 Sam text is probably a scribal error in copying the manuscript and should read "Elhanan .. slew Lahmi the brother of . Goliath the Gittite." This conclusion is supported by a parallel report of the story in 1 Chr 20:5 which has the missing italicized phrase "Lahmi the brother of" thus showing it was the brother of Goliath that Elhanan killed and not Goliath, whom David slew just as 1 Sam 17 reports.